Dynamics of volcanic systems: Constraints from geodetic measurements

Geodetic measurements of crustal deformation at Icelandic volcanoes provide detailed information on surface displacement fields.  These displacement fields can be interpreted in terms of subsurface deformation sources, reflecting magma storage and transport within volcanic systems. Two space geodetic techniques can be used. Global Positioning System (GPS) geodetic measurement, and analysis of data acquired by synthetic aperture radar images (InSAR). Modelling of such data can be done with the aim of improving the understanding of the dynamics of volcanic systems. Complimentary data, such as from geochemistry and seismic observations, is used to constrain the resulting models. Many volcanoes in Iceland have been studied with these techniques

Rheology of the Earth:  Volcano response to changing ice mass

Icelandic glaciers are rapidly retreating and there are as well annual fluctuations in ice mass as more snow falls on them in wintertime. These load changes induce an Earth response. Land rises due to the general retreat of over 20 mm/year, but fluctuates annually as well due annual cycle in the ice mass. These movements are now being studied in more detail than before, in order to model the effects of load changes on magma generation, transport and storage in volcanic systems.