1980 Ph.D. from the University of Reading. Thesis: What's in a word? A Study on Word Recognition.
1973 - 1977 Research for a Ph.D. thesis at the University of Reading, supervised by Professor Max Coltheart.
1973 M.Sc. in experimental Psychology from the University of Sussex.
1972 B.Sc. in Physics at the University of Edinburgh.
1967- 1968 Studied History, Political Science and Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh.
1967 Matriculated from Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík (high school), Science option.